Fósforo em Ward (1919)

As a few typical nineteenth-century inventions, given as nearly as practicable in the order of dates, may be mentioned: illuminating gas, 1804; electric lighting (Davy), 1810, (Moleyn, incandescent), 1841; photography (Daguerre and Nièpce), 1829; matches (John Walker), 1827; [Nota de rodapé 1: The following item appeared in the Scientific American for March 22, 1902, “Vol. LXXXVI, No. 12, New York, p. 209: — Inventor of the Lucifer Match “There have been many claimants to the honor of being the maker of the first lucifer match. But a recent discovery of some old account books at Stockton-onTees, England, affords documentary evidence which proves beyond question that one John Walker, a Durham chemist, was the original inventor and maker of the match. According to a diary, in which Walker carefully noted all his business transactions, the first box of matches was sold for thirty-five cents in April, 1827. It appears that they at once became popular, and people traveled from the adjacent towns to purchase them. Walker employed the poor of Stockton to split the wood, but dipped them in the phosphorus mixture himself to insure their’ perfection. The inventor was pressed by his friends to patent the process; he refused, however, affirming that he had ample means to satisfy his simple wants.”] India rubber or caoutchouc, 1839; gun-cotton, 1841; [524] the Bunsen burner, 1845; the sewing machine, 1847. Of the last half of the century it is unnecessary to speak. All know the history of the ocean cable, of the telephone, of the bicycle, of the automobile, of the X-rays, of wireless telegraphy, etc. (Ward 1919:523-4)

WARD, Lester. 1919. Pure sociology: a treatise on the origin and spontaneous development of society. New York: The Macmillan Company.