Cloro em Mumford (1938)

Note the environmental effect of the massing of industries that the new regime tended to make universal. A single factory chimney, a single blast furnace, a single dye works may easily have its effluvia absorbed by the surrounding landscape: twenty of them in a narrow area effectively pollute the air or water beyond remedy. So that the unavoidably dirty industries became through urban concentration far more formidable than they were when they had existed on a smaller scale and were more widely dispersed about the countryside. At the same time clean industries, such as the making of blankets, which still goes on at Witney in England, with bleaching and shrinking conducted out in the open air of a charming countryside, became [163] impossible under the old rural methods in the new centers: chlorine took the place of sunlight, and for the healthful outdoor work that often accompanied the older processes of manufacture, with changes of scene as well as process to renew the spirit of the worker, came the dull drudgery of work within a dirty building hemmed in by other dirty buildings. Such losses cannot be measured in pecuniary terms; and we have no calculus for figuring out how much the gains in production must be offset by the palpable sacrifice of life and a living environment. (Mumford 1938:162-3)

MUMFORD, Lewis. 1938. The Culture of Cities. San Diego: Harvest/HBJ.