Pathos e paixão
“quality that arouses pity or sorrow,” 1660s, from Greek pathos “suffering, feeling, emotion, calamity,” literally “what befalls one,” related to paskhein “to suffer,” and penthos “grief, sorrow;” from PIE root *kwent(h)- “to suffer, endure” (cf. Old Irish cessaim “I suffer,” Lithuanian kenčiu “to suffer,” pakanta “patience”).
“science of diseases,” 1610s, from French pathologie (16c.), from medical Latin pathologia “study of disease,” from Greek pathos “suffering” (see pathos) + –logia “study” (see –logy). In reference to the study of abnormal mental conditions from 1842. Ancient Greek pathologia was “study of the passions;” the Greek word for “science of diseases” was pathologike (“pathologics”).
1590s, “affecting the emotions, exciting the passions,” from Middle French pathétique “moving, stirring, affecting” (16c.), from Late Latin patheticus, from Greek pathetikos “subject to feeling, sensitive, capable of emotion,” from pathetos “liable to suffer,” verbal adjective of pathein “to suffer” (see pathos). Meaning “arousing pity, pitiful” is first recorded 1737. Colloquial sense of “so miserable as to be ridiculous” is attested from 1937. Related: Pathetical (1570s); pathetically. Pathetic fallacy (1856, first used by Ruskin) is the attribution of human qualities to inanimate objects.
late 12c., “sufferings of Christ on the Cross,” from Old French passion “Christ’s passion, physical suffering” (10c.), from Late Latin passionem (nominative passio) “suffering, enduring,” from past participle stem of Latin pati “to suffer, endure,” possibly from PIE root *pe(i)- “to hurt” (cf. Sanskrit pijati “reviles, scorns,” Greek pema “suffering, misery, woe,” Old English feond “enemy, devil,” Gothic faian “to blame”).
Sense extended to sufferings of martyrs, and suffering generally, by early 13c.; meaning “strong emotion, desire” is attested from late 14c., from Late Latin use of passio to render Greek pathos. Replaced Old English þolung (used in glosses to render Latin passio), literally “suffering,” from þolian (v.) “to endure.”
Sense of “sexual love” first attested 1580s; that of “strong liking, enthusiasm, predilection” is from 1630s. The passion-flower so called from 1630s.
The name passionflower — flos passionis — arose from the supposed resemblance of the corona to the crown of thorns, and of the other parts of the flower to the nails, or wounds, while the five sepals and five petals were taken to symbolize the ten apostles — Peter … and Judas … being left out of the reckoning. [“Encyclopaedia Britannica,” 1885]