Oxigênio em White (1949)

The discovery of sun spots was made independently by at least four men in a single year: by Galileo, Fabricus, Scheiner, and Harriott, in 1611, The parallax of a star was first measured by Bessel, Struve, and Henderson, working independently, in 1838. Oxygen was discovered independently by Scheele and Priestly in 1774. The invention of the self-exciting dynamo was claimed by Hjorth, Varley, Siemens, Wheatstone, and Ladd in 1866-67, and by Wilde between 1863-67. The solution of the problem of respiration was made independently by Priestly, Scheele, Lavoisier, Spallanzani, and Davy, in a single year: 1777. Invention of the telescope and the thermometer each is claimed by eight or nine persons independently and at approximately the same time. ”Even the south pole, never before trodden by the foot of human beings, was at last reached twice in one summer” [Nota de rodapé 11: Kroeber, 1917, p. 200.] (Kroeber). The great work of Mendel in genetics lay unnoticed for many years. But when it was eventually re-discovered, it was done not by one man but by three—deVries, Correns, and Tschermak—and in a single year, 1900. One could go on indefinitely. When the growing, interactive culture process reaches a certain point, an invention or discovery takes place. (White 1949:209)

Discovery of oxygen: Scheele, 1774; Priestley, 1774. (White 1949:170)

WHITE, Leslie. 1949. The science of culture: a study of man and civilization. New York: Grove Press.